Horizontal Inheritance with Trees Causing Morgellons Fibers… cont.
Feb. 4, 2009
Part 3 of:
Horizontal Inheritance with Trees and Toilet Paper
Causing Morgellons Fibers
THE ROLE OF HORIZONITAL INHERITANCE OR GENE TRANSFER
"Cloning bacteria is the easiest thing on earth. They just copy their DNA and then split themselves in half with one copy of the genome in each half. The end products are two exact duplicates of each other that can then go on to divide some more.
Bacteria do however, have variation. Rather than getting their variation from unique combinations of parental DNA, they get it from their neighbors. This process is called horizontal gene transfer. It’s kind of like a white elephant exchange. Sometimes you win, sometimes you lose. They don’t know what they are going to get. Except in this case their lives depend on it. If they get worse genes, they’ll die. If they get better genes, they live and do better than their neighbors."
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism. By contrast, vertical transfer occurs when an organism receives genetic material from its ancestor, e.g. its parent or a species from which it evolved. Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but there is a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a highly significant phenomenon, and amongst single-celled organisms perhaps the dominant form of genetic transfer . Artificial horizontal gene transfer is a form of genetic engineering.
As Jain, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes." (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). The phenomenon appears to have had some significance for unicellular eukaryotes as well. As Bapteste et al. (2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution."
There is some evidence that even higher plants and animals have been affected and this has raised concerns for safety. However, Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. However, the prevalence and importance of HGT in the evolution of multicellular eukaryotes remain unclear."
The virus called Mimivirus can itself be infected by a virus called Sputnik. "Sputnik’s genome reveals further insight into its biology. Although 13 of its genes show little similarity to any other known genes, three are closely related to mimivirus and mamavirus genes, perhaps cannibalized by the tiny virus as it packaged up particles sometime in its history. This suggests that the satellite virus could perform horizontal gene transfer between viruses — paralleling the way that bacteriophages ferry genes between bacteria."
Horizontal gene transfer is common among bacteria, even very distantly-related ones. This process is thought to be a significant cause of increased drug resistance; when one bacterial cell acquires resistance, it can quickly transfer the resistance genes to many species. Enteric bacteria appear to exchange genetic material with each other within the gut in which they live. There are three common mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer:
Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). This process is relatively common in bacteria, but less common in eukaryotes. Transformation is often used to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments, or for industrial or medical applications. See also molecular biology and biotechnology.
Transduction, the process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a bacterial virus (a bacteriophage, commonly called a phage).
Bacterial conjugation, a process in which a living bacterial cell transfers genetic material through cell-to-cell contact."
In laymen’s terms – it looks there’s already a variety of ‘mixtures’ in existence and they can cross over from bacteria to viruses to parasites, creating new ‘entities’. And, there are possibly several new entities already in existence in our GM tree world?
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