Morgellons Researchers

Liposomes or Micelles?

 

Micelle

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micelles

Normally, the hydrophobic tail of the micelle is introverted:

 

Scheme of a micelle formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution.

Inverse/reverse micelles

In a non-polar solvent, it is the exposure of the hydrophilic head groups to the surrounding solvent that is energetically unfavourable, giving rise to a water-in-oil system. In this case the hydrophilic groups are sequestered in the micelle core and the hydrophobic groups extend away from the centre. These inverse micelles are proportionally less likely to form on increasing headgroup charge, since hydrophilic sequestration would create highly unfavorable electrostatic interactions. [1]

In some cases, as described above, the hydrophobic tail  becomes introverted:

Scheme of an inverse micelle formed by phospholipids in an organic solvent.

Connecting Micelles

A novel strategy to link block copolymer micelles via metal–ligand interactions, leading to hierarchical supramolecular networks is presented. The mechanical properties of the obtained materials can be tuned easily by the choice of the metal ions used. The strong networks exhibit a chemical and mechanical stimuli responsive behavior, with almost instantaneous recovery in the latter case.  [1]

What we have seen in human samples to show connecting micelles:

Critical micelle concentration

”In chemistry, the critical micelle concentration (CMC) is defined as the concentration of surfactants above which micelles are spontaneously formed. Upon introduction of surfactants (or any surface active materials) into the system they will initially partition into the interface, reducing the system free energy by a) lowering the energy of the interface (calculated as area x surface tension) and b) by removing the hydrophobic parts of the surfactant from contacts with water. Subsequently, when the surface coverage by the surfactants increases and the surface free energy (surface tension) has decreased, the surfactants start aggregating into micelles, thus again decreasing the system free energy by decreasing the contact area of hydrophobic parts of the surfactant with water. Upon reaching CMC, any further addition of surfactants will just increase the number of micelles (in the ideal case). ”  [2]

Surfactant

”Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are amphiphilic, meaning they contain both hydrophobic groups (their "tails") and hydrophilic groups (their "heads"). Therefore, they are soluble in both organic solvents and water.

A micelle—the lipophilic tails of the surfactant molecules remain on the inside of the micelle due to unfavourable interactions. The polar "heads" of the micelle, due to favourable interactions with water, form a hydrophilic outer layer that in effect protects the hydrophobic core of the micelle. The compounds that make up a micelle are typically amphiphilic in nature, meaning that not only are micelles soluble in protic solvents such as water but also in aprotic solvents as a reverse micelle.

Health and environmental controversy

Some surfactants are known to be toxic to animals, ecosystems and humans, and can increase the diffusion of other environmental contaminants. Despite this, they are routinely deposited in numerous ways on land and into water systems, whether as part of an intended process or as industrial and household waste. Some surfactants have proposed or voluntary restrictions on their use. For example, PFOS is slated for persistent organic pollutant (POP) status by the Stockholm Convention. Additionally, PFOA has been subject to a voluntary agreement by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‎ and eight chemical companies to reduce and eliminate emissions of the chemical and its precursors. However, other industries operate outside of the voluntary PFOA program.”  [3]

Lipid polymorphism

Cross Section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids in aqueous solutions

In lipid polymorphism, if the packing ratio of lipids is greater or less than one, lipid membranes can form two separate hexagonal phases, or nonlamellar phases, in which long, tubular aggregates form according to the environment the lipid is introduced.

Liposomes

When we look at micelles, we see that liposomes are next of kin…

”Liposomes are used as models for artificial cells.

A liposome is a tiny bubble (vesicle), made out of the same material as a cell membrane. Liposomes can be filled with drugs, and used to deliver drugs for cancer and other diseases.

Membranes are usually made of phospholipids, which are molecules that have a head group and a tail group. The head is attracted to water, and the tail, which is made of a long hydrocarbon chain, is repelled by water.

Liposomes, usually but not by definition, contain a core of aqueous solution; lipid spheres that contain no aqueous material are called micelles, however, reverse micelles (those creating fibers) can be made to encompass an aqueous environment.

* The use of liposomes for transformation or transfection of DNA into a host cell is known as lipofection.

In addition to gene and drug delivery applications, liposomes can be used as carriers for the delivery of dyes to textiles[4], pesticides to plants, enzymes and nutritional supplements to foods, and cosmetics to the skin.

It should be noted that formation of liposomes and nanoliposomes is not a spontaneous process. Lipid vesicles are formed when phospholipids such as lecithin are placed in water and consequently form one bilayer or a series of bilayers, each separated by water molecules, once enough energy is supplied [8]. Liposomes can be created by sonicating phospholipids in water[3]. Low shear rates create multilamellar liposomes, which have many layers like an onion. Continued high-shear sonication tends to form smaller unilamellar liposomes.

Further advances in liposome research have been able to allow liposomes to avoid detection by the body’s immune system, specifically, the cells of reticuloendothelial system (RES). These liposomes are known as "stealth liposomes", and are constructed with PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) studding the outside of the membrane. The PEG coating, which is inert in the body, allows for longer circulatory life for the drug delivery mechanism.

However, research currently seeks to investigate at what amount of PEG coating the PEG actually hinders binding of the liposome to the delivery site. In addition to a PEG coating, most stealth liposomes also have some sort of biological species attached as a ligand to the liposome in order to enable binding via a specific expression on the targeted drug delivery site. These targeting ligands could be monoclonal antibodies (making an immunoliposome), vitamins, or specific antigens.

Targeted liposomes can target nearly any cell type in the body and deliver drugs that would naturally be systemically delivered. Naturally toxic drugs can be much less toxic if delivered only to diseased tissues. Polymersomes, morphologically related to liposomes can also be used this way.”  [4]

Lipofection

”Lipofection (or liposome transfection) is a technique used to inject genetic material into a cell by means of liposomes, which are vesicles that can easily merge with the cell membrane since they are both made of a phospholipid bilayer. Lipofection is a lipid-based transfection technology which belongs to biochemical methods including also polymers, DEAE dextran and calcium phosphate. The main advantages of lipofection are its high efficiency, its ability to transfect all types of nucleic acids in a wide range of cell types, its ease of use, reproducibility and low toxicity. In addition this method is suitable for all transfection applications (transient, stable, co-transfection, reverse, sequential or multiple transfections…), high throughput screening assay and has also shown good efficiency in some in vivo models.”   [5]

Now that we have established a better understanding of liposomes, we can look into this further.

References:

[1].  http://tinyurl.com/yfhoz5o

Soft Matter, 2009, 5, 3409 – 3411, DOI: 10.1039/b910325b

[2].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_micelle_concentration

[3].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surfactants

[4].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liposomes

[5].  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipofection

Advertisements

October 14, 2009 - Posted by | Uncategorized

2 Comments »

  1. Suddenly I want to go on a starvation strike.

    I didn’t have the time (nor the stomach) to go through all of the links you provided, but here is one more link in case you did not include it):

    http://www.ghorganics.com/New%20Findings%20on%20How%20Mulch%20Color%20Can%20Affect%20Food%20Plants.htm

    and here is an excerpt from that link:

    In another study, Kasperbauer discovered that cotton fibers grew longer in bolls exposed to increased FR-to-red light ratios. Length is an important component of cotton fiber quality.

    “We set out to see whether cotton fibers would be as responsive to extra far-red light as the elongating cells in seedling stems are,” says Kasperbauer. “We found that the difference in fiber length was influenced more by the higher FR-to-red ratio reaching the developing bolls than by increased photosynthetic light…”

    I am very grateful for the work you and your partner are doing to uncover the root of this dangerous disease.

    You have also raised critically important points, such as the fact that this bacteria is now found in food sources. The first thing I thought of as I was showering these anomalous invaders from my body was, “well, I’ve gotten rid of some of them for the time being, but now they’re in the water.” Aren’t these things just about impossible to kill with hot or cold water, not to mention they are water insoluble?? Where does this leave us? Where does this leave our children?

    Please tell me what to do to become an active participant in insisting our government research and find a cure for this disease. Actually, you and your partner have already done the research, it appears, so I suggest you get a patent on it asap. The hold up in the CDC right now probably has more to do with in-house fighting over who is going to get the credit for “discovering” the cure for Mogellon’s disease.

    God speed to you as you continue your well-researched work in this disease.
    Oh, and do you think there are pictures you could show of what the very early skin scrapings look like when taken from a person who carries the presumed baculovirus? They look like two conjoined circles, if I’m not mistaken. or does normal skin appear this way as well?

    I’m anxious to know what you say about this since I saw identical formations drop from the base of my child’s kiddie ice-cream cone yesterday.

    Comment by Disgusted | November 22, 2009 | Reply

  2. As an add-on to my post above, I wanted to mention that the link I provided re: agro-engineered crops: What’s to say this hasn’t played a role in Mogellon’s for a similar reason as the one implied in your commentary, i.e., a fusing or integration of the insect into other components of the experiment?

    Comment by Disgusted | November 22, 2009 | Reply


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: